Archive for the ‘ Affect – Cross-Cultural ’ Category

“Ideal Affect” – Tsai (2007)

Ideal affect

  • ‘‘attitudes toward emotion’’ (Ellsworth, 1994; Izard, 1971; Mesquita, Frijda, & Scherer, 1997) – both valence, + preference, motivation
  • ‘‘norms regarding emotional experience’’ (Diener & Suh, 1999; Eid & Diener, 2001) – both comparison reference, + personal preference
  • ‘‘feeling rules’’ (Hochschild, 1983; Wierzbicka, 1994) – both comparison reference, + personal preference
  • discrepancy between ideal and actual
  • not temperament, learnt

Ideal affect & culture

  • daily communicative exchanges – scripts (e.g. American “fun morality”, Wolfenstein, 1953), exchange bw. parent & child (e.g. vocalization), exchange bw. peers (e.g. affect sharing)
  • religion (e.g. texts)
  • media – magazines, children’s books
  • influence vs. adjustment goals
  • recreational activities
  • music preferences
  • substance use

The theory (AVT)

  • “ideal affect differs from actual affect” – goal is affective state itself; affect + mood regulation
  • “cultural factors shape ideal affect more than they shape actual affect”
  • “discrepancies between actual and ideal affect motivate moodproducing behavior” (p. 251).

Tools

  • AVI
  • Facial Action Coding System (Ekman & Friesen, 1978)